This general laboratory course focuses on the basic principles and procedures used to manipulate and study microorganisms. The course will begin with basic microscopic skills: preparations and staining of specimens, proper use and handling of compound light microscopes, interpretation of visual images. Following the microscopy unit students will learn basic aseptic technique, isolation, cultivation, enumeration and pure culturing skills. After students have developed these basic skills, they will expand on these methods to experimentally determine whether bacteria produce various enzymes and hemolysins and to cultivate bacterial viruses. Students will determine the sensitivity of selected bacteria to various methods of microbial control: ultraviolet radiation, heavy metals, antibiotics and disinfectants. A genetics unit will demonstrate the concepts of induced mutations and transformation using antibiotic resistance as a marker.