This course is a vertebrate embryology course. It is a study of human embryology. Emphasis is on the fundamental developmental; processes shared by vertebrates. Topics include: 1) meiosis and gametogenesis; 2) fertilization; 3) early development of the embryo form the zygote state through the differentiation and development of the neural tube and the neural crests (period of the embryo); 4) the events and phases of embryogenesis from fertilization to nine months (10 lunar months) of development; period of the ovum; period of the embryo; period of the fetus. The next phase of the course will detail the development of selective human organ systems including the nervous system, the sensory organs, and the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, and urogenital systems. Throughout the course the common mechanisms involved in cytodifferentiation, histodifferentiation, organodifferentiation, and systemic differentiation will be discussed. Events related to gene activation/inactivation and biochemical differentiation, especially as related to cell-to-cell communication, will be discussed. Developmental (congenital) defects will be described. Especially those related to the neural crests and neural tube (neural crest and neural tube defects). The causes and successful clinical treatments (s) of pregnant mothers against these serious birth defect will be discussed.